An electron beam is generated using two instruments: an electron gun and a magnetic or optical guide to direct the beam. The gun consists of an anode and a cathode operating in a vacuum. When the gun is turned on, the cathode directs a flow of electrons toward the anode, creating a beam that can be focused on the part to be treated.
Ultraviolet treatment is used as an alternative to the heat process pasteurization of juices. UV radiation kills microorganisms by penetrating their cell membranes. For more information, see Section 4.7.3 of the page New Energy Efficient Technologies That Are Applicable to Manufacturing Processes on the Natural Resources Canada Web site.